Mathematical modelling of heat transport in a section of human forearm

  • Oliwia Nowakowska
  • Zbigniew Buliński


The paper presents numerical analysis of heat transfer in the human forearm and influence of its internal structure on the temperature distribution inside. For this purpose three geometrical models of a human forearm were developed: model containing continuous muscle tissue only, model in which muscle tissue and bones were considered and model which contained muscle tissue bones and main blood vessels. In those models heat transfer in the muscle tissues and bones were described by Pennes' bioheat equation, while for blood flowing through main vessels (artery and vein) full set of governing equations were solved. Moreover, simplified one-dimensional description of skin was developed in order to reduce model complexity. Results obtained with all models were confronted against each other to reveal influence of the main blood vessels on the temperature distribution in a forearm.


bioheat transfer, Pennes' equation, human forearm, temperature distribution, simplified skin model,


Jan 25, 2017
How to Cite
NOWAKOWSKA, Oliwia; BULIŃSKI, Zbigniew. Mathematical modelling of heat transport in a section of human forearm. Computer Assisted Methods in Engineering and Science, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 4, p. 347-363, jan. 2017. ISSN 2299-3649. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 june 2022.